Book Review The General Theory Of Employment Interest And Money by John Maynard Keynes

It seems that most editorials about John Maynard Keynes are have an tremendous political slant and are generally done by those who have never even read this book. Primarily they are against his core conclusion that broadened government participation is required in the economy for stabilization functions. The key to comprehending Keynes is the idea that at unique times in the business cycle, an economy can become over-productive (or under-consumptive) and consequently, an agressive spiral is started that results in considerable layoffs and cuts in production as businesses try to balance aggregate supply and demand.

Thus, full employment is simply one of several or multiple macro equilibria. If an economy reaches an underemployment equilibrium, something is necessary to enhance or spark demand to generate full employment. This something could possibly be business investment but The General Theory Of Employment states because of the logic and unique characteristics of investment choices, it is less likely to rapidly reestablish full employment.

Keynes logically seizes upon the public budget and government expenditures as the shortest way to restore full employment. Borrowing the money to fund the deficit from private households and businesses is a fast, direct approach to restore full employment while at the same time, redirecting or transfering off the funds from the private sector which prompted the over-production in the first place. This book is essential to understand modern economics.

There are many things The General Theory Of Employment and Keynes was right about as well as completely wrong about. However, understanding his perspective is important when weighing alternative viewpoints. It is also important to compare his ideas with the actions of governments. You will at times see massive deviations from his theory into areas that he never suported to such extent that he wrote an open letter to FDR protesting his actions while trying to recover from the Great Depression.

About the Author: Walter provides over a decade of market information, economic knowledge and other great book reviews on his website

Copyright 2010 BIDHITTER

Asiabiz Provides Personalised Employment Pass

In order to facilitate the contribution of global talents to Singapore, the country introduced a new scheme called the Personalised Employment Pass (PEP).

Through PEP, foreign professionals are allowed to work in Singapore for up to 5 years and the holder is not tied to one single employer. PEP is granted based on individual merits and this visa can be applied individually without first securing a job in Singapore. There is a grace period of six months from the collection of the visa to secure employment.

Currently, the Employment Pass or EP can only be granted on the basis of confirmed employment with a specific employer. Unless the EP holder finds employment with a new company, the work pass is immediately cancelled and the EP holder has to leave Singapore the moment the employment ends or the EP holder leaves. A new EP application is needed when the holder needs to move to a new job with a different company or employer. PEP is granted on the strength of an applicants individual merits and does not tie the holder to any employer, thus, a PEP holder is allowed to remain in Singapore for up to six months in between jobs to evaluate new employment opportunities.

The following requirements are needed in order to be eligible to apply for the PEP:

* Must have a minimum monthly fixed salary of S$7,000 and the last drawn salary is not more than than 6 months at the time of application
* A former P1 category Employment Pass holder who resides overseas and is not unemployed for more than a continuous period of six months at the time of application.
* A current P1 category Employment Pass holder.
* A current P2 category Employment Pass holder with at least two years of working experience in a P category of Employment Pass and earns an annual income of at least S$30,000.
* A foreign graduate from institutions of higher learning in Singapore that has at least two years of working experience on a P or Q1 category Employment Pass (please take note that your annual income should be a minimum of S$30,000).

PEP pass holders cannot start their own company in Singapore. However, they are allowed to hold a minority Shareholding in the company including acting as one of the Directors.

Having a PEP affords job flexibility. They can be employed with any sector. In case they change jobs, PEP holders do not need to re-apply for a new pass.

PEP holders are also given the flexibility of a continuous period of up to six months without a job to evaluate employment or work opportunities. However, at this time, such PEP holders cannot leave the country.

Foreign professionals who are eligible for PEP are the following:

* Overseas foreign professional with at least S$7,000 monthly salary overseas. The last monthly salary overseas should be drawn not more than six months from the time of the application
* Former P1 Pass holders who are presently overseas residents
* Former P1 Pass holders should not be unemployed for a continuous period not longer than six months at the time of application.
* P1 Pass holders. Upon application, P1 Pass holders will be accorded In-principle Approval for the PEP
* P2 Pass holders. P2 Pass holders must have at least two years of working experience under a P Pass. A fixed salary of at least S$30,000 should be earned by them in the preceding year.
* Q1 Pass holders. Q1 Pass holders must have at least five years of working experience under a Q1 pass. They should earn a fixed salary of at least S$30,000 in the preceding year.
* Foreign graduates from tertiary academic institutions in Singapore. Foreign graduates from tertiary academic institutions in Singapore with at least two years of work experience on a P or Q1 Pass. They should earn a fixed salary of at least S$30,000 in the preceding year.

Massage Courses Teach Natural Healing Skills

If you are looking for an education in natural healing, a massage course could be a good place to start. With more than a thousand massage schools across the U.S. and Canada, it will be easy for you to find a course in massage, but which is the right one for you? There are hundreds of massage variations, and each course is different; so it is vital that you consider your goals for the future before you begin your massage studies.

In general, massage training focuses on expanding the students’ knowledge of the natural healing benefits of nurturing human touch. All massage courses can instruct you in therapeutic touch methods and techniques that allow the body to heal naturally. But, each form of massage has its own particular benefits and its own particular type of client. Western styles of massage are designed to reduce pain and physical dysfunction, while other forms are meant to induce relaxation. There are also some ancient, Eastern forms of massage that take a holistic approach to overall health and healing. And, if you are thinking of going into private practice upon graduation, it will be helpful if your massage school includes some instruction on the practical aspects of operating a massage business. You may even decide to extend your studies into the fields of acupuncture, or even a chiropractic training program.

As a natural healing art form, the practice of massage is meant to increase the lubrication of muscle tissue, improve circulation, and provide the client with improved flexibility. Regardless of the massage curriculum, all the various forms of massage offer amazing benefits to the human body, including stress reduction, relief of pain and depression, and even strengthening of the immune system.

Once you have completed a massage course, you will find many exciting employment opportunities. With a certificate in massage, or degree in natural healing, you can be qualified for jobs in a clinical setting or private massage practice; or you may seek employment on cruise ships, in a spa, or a sports venue. The employment possibilities are endless, making massage training a popular course for today’s natural healers.

To learn more about courses in massage, we invite you to visit our website where you can review hundreds of accredited massage schools. It’s time to take that first step to a rewarding new career in natural healing!

DISCLAIMER: Above is a GENERAL OVERVIEW and may or may not reflect specific practices, courses and/or services associated with ANY ONE particular school(s) that is or is not advertised on our website.

Copyright 2007 – All rights reserved by Media Positive Communications, Inc.

Notice: Publishers are free to use this article on an ezine or website, provided the article is reprinted in its entirety, including copyright and disclaimer, and ALL links remain intact and active.

Top 3 Reasons For Fail Background Check

Finding a job in this economy can be a daunting and difficult task. In a competitive job market employers become more stringent and will disqualify applicants that provide incorrect or incomplete information about themselves over the past 10 years. When employers find discrepancies between the information you provided and what they find out in your background check report, they assume that you are either disorganized, less-than-truthful, or just plain dishonest. Whatever the case, the result is that you dont receive a job offer. Thats why you must secure your place among the top candidates by making sure you will pass your pre-employment background check.

As a private detective who specializes in background investigations, I want to share with you what I have learned over the past 15 years in conducting tens of thousands of background checks for small, medium, large and fortune 500 companies. Even though I charge $150 an hour for consulting services, I am providing my expert advice to you free of charge because I want you to succeed. If I can help even just a few people find a job and secure their familys future, I will feel like I am doing my part to help get our countrys economy back on track.

So lets jump right in to what you came here to for: the top 3 reasons why applicants fail their background check.


You know that little question on every job application with a checkbox next to it that says something like Have you ever been convicted of a crime? Well you need to know the correct answer to this question before you check the box. So let me clarify what this question means to employers: what they really want to know is if you are honest and trustworthy. They can and will find out if you have a criminal record when they conduct the background check, no matter how you answer. So if you say no, and you have a criminal conviction on your record, what you are really demonstrating is that you are not honest and cannot be trusted.

If you do have a criminal conviction and you answer yes to the question, you are giving yourself the best possible chance of getting a job offer by being honest and straightforward. Provide accurate details about the charge, the date, and the county of conviction. When the background check comes back, the employer will see that you have given all of the complete and accurate details up front. This shows you are being open and honest, and that you are taking responsibility for what you did and moving on with your life. You would be surprised to know how often employers are willing to overlook criminal records with applicants that have good solid experience or a winning personality. You can increase your chances of this happening by applying for positions where your conviction is unrelated to the duties of the job you are applying for. For instance, if you were convicted of a DUI, I wouldnt apply for a driving position, or if you were convicted of theft I wouldnt apply for a cash handling position.


Employers want to see accurate and complete information concerning your former employers. The reason for this is again a matter of principal. The employers perspective is that they want honest and organized employees, and if you dont remember the details of your job experience, then why are you listing it on your resume or application? And they do have a point. If you are a very organized person, you probably already have a document prepared with all of the details concerning all of the jobs you have held over the past 10 years. For the rest of us, gathering up all of this information is a near-impossible task, especially if you have job-hopped quite a bit. So whats the next best thing to having a master document with the details of all your previous work experience? Have a professional background screener compile one for you. That way when you fill out an application you can be confident that you will have the exact same information in front of you as the employer will receive after completing your background check.

The information that you need to compile before filling out a job application consists of the information that is asked on most application forms, such as the ex-employers name, address and telephone number, exact dates of employment, your job title per the employer, (not the one you were in theory or the one you thought you deserved) your beginning and ending pay rates, and your reason for leaving as recorded by the employer. Notice the common theme here is that your information should match exactly the information that your ex-employer is going to release when asked. This strategy pays dividends many times over, and will help you to avoid failing a background check for providing inaccurate or incomplete work history information.


Employers base pay scales, individual pay rates, job descriptions and job requirements in part on educational qualifications. Even though many job positions require a certain level of education only as a minimum requirement, employers take offense when an applicant misrepresents or overstates their education, because it violates their sense of fair play. If you dont meet the minimum requirements, then you shouldnt be applying for the position. Employers also see this as an economic issue; if they are going to be paying you a certain wage based in part on educational credentials you dont actually have, then they are paying for something that they never received. No company is this economy wants to feel like they are being defrauded.

That is why it is so important to be very specific in stating your education credentials. Dont say you graduated if you didnt, even if you were just one credit hour short. If you attended a trade school for 8 months, dont say you were there for a year. If you graduated with a 2.5 grade average, dont say you had a 3.0. If you have a GED, say so, but dont say that you graduated high school; its not the same. If you never attended college, dont say that you attended a university that burned down in 1980. Professional investigators like myself, who do background checks for a living will see right through it, and relay that to our client who requested the background check.

Luckily, you can easily obtain a copy of your background check online to uncover what a potential employer will find before they find it. Instead of filling out an application wondering if you remembered to write down everything correctly, you can just look at your own master document compiled by a professional background screening firm.

A word to the wise: there are thousands of websites that sell instant background checks online. These are not professional background screening firms that conduct investigations for large employers. Most of them are just information brokers that sell instant data that has been circulating around the web for years. Make sure that you select a professional background screening firm or private detective agency that does on-request delayed searches, which are researched once you place your order and not instant results.

The bottom line is that in order to be safe, you need to know exactly what a prospective employer is going to find on your background check report. A professional background screening firm that deals with the public can cut out all the work of obtaining the background information about you, and organize it into a report that you can receive in your email box. Instead of having to go to city hall, the courthouse, your high school and other places that hold this information, you can get it all online by ordering a pre-employment background check on yourself.

Good luck and success on your job hunt!

Singapore Employment Pass Explained In Detail

Acquiring Singapore Employment Pass is what non-Singaporean citizens, or even residents desired in an effort of seeking Singapore’s business capabilities. The Singapore Employment Pass is considered as the main working visa to any entrepreneurs, managers, skilled workers, professionals, and business owners may he/she be a director or shareholder of a registered company in Singapore. The said Employment Pass is issued by Minister of Manpower in Singapore.

Being the world’s favorite investment hub, the Minister of Manpower finds it necessary to grant eligibility among foreigners to live and work in Singapore, thereby, eradicating all legal hindrances commonly associated in doing business offshore.

Traveling in and out of Singapore has never been easy and minimal hassle with a Singapore Employment Pass. Being able to acquire a Permanent Residence in Singapore is one step closer to be able to actually acquire a Permanent Residence in Singapore.Of course, this is subject to a few requirements and considerations. At any rate, an EP in Singapore is issued to the following individuals:

– All foreign individuals whose desire is to relocate to Singapore for matters related to business.
– All entrepreneurs who have already established business in Singapore and who wish to employ foreign individuals.
– All foreign individuals who receive an employment offer in Singapore.To make this work, the individual needs the employing company to process the application for EP on his or her behalf.

For first-timers, the Singapore Employment Pass is considered valid for 2 years but for the next renewal the validity would be for 3 years. In applying for an EP, the Minister of Memorandum provides a 3-step procedure described as follow:

Step 1
Before the application is submitted online, a newly incorporated company must obtain an authorization code from Minister of Manpower. Usually, the authorization code is released within a span one week or 2.
Step 2
After obtaining the authorization code, the EP application will then be submitted online and which will take 2 weeks for its approval.
Step 3
Upon approval, a letter known as In-Principle Approval or IPA is sent via e-mail from the Minister of Manpower.In claiming the EP, IPA will then be given to the Work Pass Division of Ministry of Manpower.The validity of IPA will hold 6 months, from the date when it is notified as approved.

Other requirements that applicants should prepare besides the IPA are medical exam which can also be done from ones country, a copy of present passport size photo, original passport with the entry embarkation cards, and other requirements given by IPA.

It is the sole decision of the Ministry of Manpower to evaluate applications for EP. The ministry takes into consideration pertinent aspects in evaluation such as present status of citizenship, salary of the applicant, age, pertinent work and experience, the company’s paid-up capital and background, and expected roles and responsibility.

The following are qualifications that a foreigner or applicant must possess to be eligible:

– An educational Diploma and or degree from a reputable college or university:
– Expert’s skills
– Professional qualifications
– Nonetheless, though an education is among the primary factors, it may be compensated by other factors in its absence.The Ministry of Manpower does not immediately discard applications by foreign individuals who have not completed a college degree or earned a diploma Either way, the following documents must be presented:
– Related certificates and a printed copy of Original Transcript of Records
– Detailed Resume or Curriculum Vitae indicating the employment and education history
– Testimonials or Certificate of Employment from previous employers
– A copy of Passport details

Should the documents expressed in foreign languages, the same must be translated into English by an official translation service accredited by Singaporean authorities.

Relative to the purpose, the Employment of Pass are in 3 types namely P1 Pass, P2 Pass, and Q1 Pass.
In order to attain P1 EP, one must earn a fixed monthly income not below S$7,000. The position kept must either be an executive, specialist or managerial.

The P2 EP is issued among individuals having a fixed monthly salary of more than S$3,500 and who possess satisfactory qualifications.

For a Q1 EP to be obtained the applicants must have a fixed monthly earning of more than S$2,500 and who should also have impressive qualifications.

Family members may then have a chance to visit or even stay for a considerable period of time since upon issuance of EP, the applicant can apply for a Long-Term Visit Pass or Dependent Pass.